Women right based approaches to development
It has been distinctly noted that all the United Nation agencies committed for the development aspects for child and women rather pursued the ‘beneficiary need approach’ for development before 1997.But today UNFPA(United Nations Population Fund) and other UN partners are designing the developmental programs based on human or women rights. This approach not only focuses on the basic rights but also holds the office bearer (the government) accountable for protecting and preserving theses rights. Protection means enactment of such laws or any subsequent amendment so steps can be taken when theses rights are violated. On the other hand ensuring the rights mean keeping the institutional functionaries at right places and assuring flow of resources.
Reproductive health is a key factor:
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held at Cairo in 1994 clarified the notions about gender equality, reproductive health and the women rights. It confirmed that for sustainable right based development the political, social, economic and health status of women have to be significantly addressed. The incidences of deaths due to child birth, gender based violence, unequal working conditions and payments and high rate of HIV infections due to social susceptibility represent violation of women rights.
Clarifying women rights:
UNFPA is committed to the protection of women rights and their participation in the peace building and reform initiatives. Even the organization does support such legislations that protect the rights of Women and the laws in Ecuador and Guatemala allowing the women the rights of reproductive health care have been path breaking. It has been significantly pointed out by the various agencies that unless the reproductive and sexual health are not addressed on uniform basis, globally the fundamental women rights cannot be restored because according to the World Bank report one third of the ailments of women at the age group of 15-44 in the developing countries relate to reproductive health and immunodeficiency. The reproductive health not only depends on the quality of the care but it is strongly related to the lifestyles and the position of Women in the society. The human rights based approach with respect to reproductive health emphasizes to have children by choice and have safe sex. The Cairo conference in 1994 and later on the fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing both extended the right to family planning, including the right to better sexual and reproductive health.
The core objective:
The objective of human right based approach is the capacity building of the right holders and the office bearer i.e. the government. As this capacity building is intangible the donors are more interested in tangible results. According to the social contact theory the State has the responsibility to fulfill the rights. In this type of approach downward accountability is involved. UNDP (The United Nations Development Program) specially focus on the social and economic rights. It has been found that the state policies will prove to be effective when women rights are incorporated. Across the world the women face compound human right violation.
The measurement of empowerment is basically assessing the increase in the capacity building capabilities so that the groups make such choices to desired outcomes. Other indicators in this regard are the improvement of human development index, increase in life expectancy, reduction in child related deaths, better access to reproductive health care and education and employment opportunities.